Formative vs. Summative Assessments

Formative and Summative Assessments

How do we know when a student has successfully completed a goal? We can plan all we want, write goals and objectives all we want, but if we miss this aspect, we won’t really know if our students have obtained the skills or level of success we wish for them to obtain. Probably the most important aspect of backwards planning is the assessment. When a good assessment is planned ahead of time, teachers can build an entire lesson with the goal of helping the students complete that assessment. Not all assessments are created equal, and not all assessments truly provide the best data for evaluating student success. In this blog post, we will discuss the differences between formative and summative assessments, when they’re best used, and apply them directly to an objective in the Declaration of Independence unit which we’ve been discussing for some time now.

There are many types of assessments, but they fall into two primary categories: formative and summative. In a formative assessment, teachers will evaluate a student’s progress in achieving the overall goal of the lesson. This will not be a final task, but a checkpoint along the way. In a video game, it might look like a save checkpoint before the completion of a level. These are very informal in the classroom, and they can include anything from questions and answers to Think-Pair-Share activities to written homework assignments and exit tickets. A teacher will use these activities to evaluate the progress a student is making towards reaching their goals. If a student is able to complete these activities, the teacher will move on to the next step in that process; if not, the teacher might choose to re-teach certain subjects or concepts before moving on. (Mellon, n.d.)

A summative assessment is quite different. The summative assessment is the end-product which the teacher expects the students to be able to complete at the end of the lesson or unit. It’s the finish line, the victory song after the last boss-fight. This is the assessment that will go into the gradebook. The summative assessment might take the form of a student-produced video, an essay, a PowerPoint, or a multiple-choice exam. The summative assessment will be used for data collection and reflection as well, but mostly in terms of planning and preparation for the following school year. Were the students successful? If not, why not? The teacher will evaluate their own effectiveness through the use of summative assessments, and if serious gaps of knowledge are apparent in these assessments the teacher might choose to spend an extra day or two at the end of a unit reteaching those concepts. (Ronan et al., 2015). I did this when most of my students missed all of the subtraction-with-borrowing questions on the same math test. We took two days to reteach borrowing, and then retook the exam. Students did much better the second time.

To clarify the difference between summative and formative assessments even further, let’s take a look at the following objective from our Declaration of Independence unit. This objective occurs at the end of the unit, when students have already analyzed and dissected the grievances, what they meant, and how they violated the rights to Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Now comes the culmination activity: writing a Declaration of Independence of their own through a Fish-Bowl discussion with elected representatives. The class will use this to declare its independence from the government of the classroom, which has been unfairly and arbitrarily taxing the student’s economy system for the last month.

Objective: Working as a class through elected representatives, the students will create their own Declaration of Independence, following the format of the original document.

There are two tasks in this objective that need to complete, and each one will need their own formative and summative assessments. They are:

  1. Working as a class through elected representatives.
  2. Create a Declaration of Independence following the format of the original document.

The table below shows how one might break down the assessments for each goal. I have included an explanation as to why I chose each assessment, as well.

Goal Formative Assessment Summative Assessment
Working as a class through elected representatives, students will create a declaration of independence Each group will write a list of grievances which they want their representative to share with the other representatives during the discussion. One student will take notes on who suggested which grievance.

This will serve as a written documentation of the participation and involvement of each student. The teacher will also monitor student participation during these discussions. This will ensure that the whole class participates in the formation of the document. If I find that students are not participating, I will give more time as needed or whisper suggestions to one or two students so that they can participate in the discussion.
During the Fish Bowl, the elected representatives will bring the list to the discussion and refer to it as they work with the other representatives to create a final list of grievances for the Declaration. Students will be evaluated based upon their ability to compile all three lists into one whole-class list of grievances.


This is the “elected representative” evaluation. Are the representatives following the wishes of the people? Their ability to compile this list shows the ability of the students to appropriately meet the collaboration requirements.

Create a Declaration of Independence following the format of the original document. Students will have an outline of the main parts of the declaration (statement of rights, grievances of those rights, conclusion), and in their groups they will decide upon the “unalienable rights” the students should have in the classroom before they write the grievances which broke those rights. Students will be evaluated based on the list of rights they give and the reasons they give for these rights.

This list will serve as the basis for the discussion in the Fish Bowl exercise later on. If it becomes apparent that students are struggling with these concepts, the teacher can step in and re-teach them as necessary.
The elected representatives will follow an outline of the declaration to write a class Declaration of Independence. They will be evaluated based upon the successful completion of the Declaration, and whether or not they followed the outline provided.


This task is a good summative assessment because in order to complete it, students have to apply the information they learned about each section on the outline directly into a new context. They are taking the information and creating something with it, which requires a whole new level of skill with the given topic. They cannot do this if they do not understand each component of the outline.The class will be graded as a whole group for this activity, with extra credit points given to the representatives for their level of effort in the lesson.

 

Planning a lesson becomes much easier when a teacher starts with the end goal in mind. Knowing that my students are going to be working together to write their own Declaration of Independence, I’ve had formative and summative assessments in each lesson along the way to build them towards that goal. This final assessment is like the last boss-fight of a video game, or like crossing the finish line on the most difficult race track in a racing game. By this point, students have finished several smaller assessments that helped them build up to this final task. But I would not have designed those tasks if I didn’t have this end-goal in mind. Backwards-mapping, then, relies entirely upon the teacher’s ability to plan purposeful assessments.

Sources:

Classroom assessment. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://fcit.usf.edu/assessment/basic/basica.html

Mellon, C. Formative vs Summative assessment – teaching excellence & educational innovation – Carnegie Mellon university. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/assessment/basics/formative-summative.html
Ronan, A., Levy, L., DeLoatch, P., Staff, E., Hicks, K., Nott, M., … Whittle, L. A. (2015, April 29). Every teacher’s guide to assessment. Retrieved April 2, 2016, from http://www.edudemic.com/summative-and-formative-assessments/

Reflections on Applying Standards, SMART Objectives, and Backwards Mapping

Achievement for every student. It’s a lofty goal, and a lofty claim that standards will help push that success. But they can, and do, help ensure that each child receives the same rigor in their education. And they can, certainly, help teachers plan engaging and intellectually challenging lessons. But this is only possible if the teacher knows how to incorporate the standards into their lesson plans. The last three activities have helped me think differently about incorporating the standards into my lesson plans and about the benefits of backwards mapping.

I felt that the first activity, in which we made a Prezi analyzing two standards, was the most beneficial for me. I have been exposed to goal-writing and backwards mapping in the past, and I’ve written unit plans based on SMART-type objectives before, but I had not analyzed a standard as thoroughly as we did here. The curriculum at my school comes with built-in lessons which I am expected to follow fairly closely, so I’ve had very little thorough lesson planning to do this school year. It was super helpful for me to learn how to pick out the key details in a standard, analyze its level on the Bloom’s Taxonomy, and apply it to my curriculum. Breaking down a standard by its verbs and its big ideas was extremely useful, and I’m planning on figuring out how my curriculum matches the Common Core standards so that I can teach with the larger standard in mind.

I also really appreciated the reminder of the importance of creating clear, SMART goals for my lessons when I created the infographic describing 5 SMART objectives to meet a specific standard. Though much of the planning is done for me, it’s still helpful to study my curriculum more thoroughly so that I become intimately familiar with the objective and how it is taught in the lesson. The lessons are Specific in their goal, with clear instructions given for completion; easily Measurable, so that both teachers and students know if they met the standard; definitely Achievable at grade-level skills; certainly Relevant to the curriculum and Results-oriented. It is the last one – Targeted – that I need to spend more time focusing on. The curriculum does a great job of building a SMAR lesson, but if I want it to be specifically tailored and Targeted to my students, I need to do that myself. I’ve achieved that in some subjects, like Reading, Science and History, but in other subjects, like Math, I definitely need to improve in adapting the curriculum to fit the needs of my class.

Backwards mapping, or the process of creating a lesson based on the standards and objectives one is trying to help students achieve, will certainly help me in this goal. I definitely learned this when I wrote a blog post in which I described my plan for a unit plan on the Declaration of Independence. By starting with the end in mind, I can tailor my activities to suit that end. In this way, I can ensure that my students are, truly, reaching the goals my curriculum intends for them to reach by the end of the lesson. This will help clarify lessons in subjects that are usually a struggle for both myself and my students. Through backwards mapping, SMART objectives, and standards-analysis, I know that my lessons will be much more thorough and much more productive.

Dissecting the Declaration of Independence Through Group Preparation and Discussion.

 Dissecting the Declaration of Independence Through Group Preparation and Discussion.

A 3rd Grade Unit of Study in History.

This unit is designed to meet two standards in the 3rd grade common core curriculum, but it primarily focuses on Speaking and Listening. Through studying the Declaration of Independence, students will, in various forms of group discussion, identify the causes of the American Revolution and compare them with the grievances they have concerning situations with the management of the classroom economy system.

I have twelve students, ages eight and nine, most of whom are fairly high readers. I have three or four students who used to be ELLs, but who, if this were a government school, would no longer be designated as ELLs. Our history curriculum covers famous American heroes from Christopher Columbus onward, and lately the figures have featured prominent American revolutionaries such as George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. This unit is designed to coincide with those areas of study.

For almost a month now, the students have been over-taxed in our classroom economy system. They have faced a 10% income tax, a $2 paper tax for every paper they hand out, a $5 recess tax for every recess, a number tax in which students pay $100 if their number gets pulled out of a hat, a shirt tax for the uniform colors that changes each day (one day, blue might be $100, but $25 the next day), and many, many more taxes that have increased in cost over that period of time. The students will have a Tea Party, organized by my room mother, to protest the taxes. This will start the unit which we are discussing today.

The unit will focus on developing student’s speech and language skills through discussing the Declaration of Independence, its causes, and through working together to write a class declaration of independence from the unfair taxes and mismanagement of the Hoot Buck money system. This is designed to meet the following standard:

CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.3.1

Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.

Proficiencies and Assessments:

There are several key proficiencies in this standard that will be addressed through this unit:

  1. Engage effectively in diverse, collaborative discussions on grade 3 topics and texts.
  2. Building on others’ ideas during those discussions.
  3. Expressing their own ideas clearly.

This activity appropriately meets the requirement of discussing 3rd grade texts and topics. Since the Declaration of Independence is covered in our units of study on the American Revolution, this is a Grade 3 topic of study. In the process of this unit, they will also use the library to research the topic using Grade 3 history texts in preparation for the group discussions.

In this unit of study, there will be several group discussions of varying kinds, all of which will require that the students build upon each others’ ideas and express their own clearly. They will appear in this manner:

Days One and Two: Students discuss, as a whole class, the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence and what they mean. This will be mostly teacher-led, as the Declaration contains many vocabulary words that would be difficult for this age group to decipher otherwise.

Day Three: Pairs of students select a grievance and use Grade 3 history texts to research the cause of that specific grievance.

Assessment: Students will write out their grievance in their own words, identify the event that caused that grievance, and explain how that event connects to the grievance. This will be a written assessment of the success of the partnership’s ability to communicate and work together.

Day Four: In groups of four, students report the events that caused the writing of the Declaration of Independence to their peers, and discuss the relationship of these things to the “unalienable rights” listed by the authors.

Assessment: Working as a group, the students will create a single graph in which the grievances are sorted under columns titled “Life”, “Liberty”, and “Pursuit of Happiness”. They will write a sentence to explain why they put each grievance in that position.

Day Five: Teacher leads demonstration of Fish Bowl discussion, and students elect representatives from their group to be in the Fish Bowl.

Day Six: Students hold discussions in their groups with their representatives, with one student taking notes for their representative, to list the grievances the group has against the class government.

Assessment: The group’s list of grievances and teacher reports on participation observed during the discussion.

Day Seven: Student representatives discuss the grievances listed by their group and draft a class Declaration of Independence using the Fish Bowl methods. Students in the outer circle grade based on accuracy and attentiveness to the wishes of their groups. At the end of the exercise, students vote on whether or not they will accept the drafted Declaration of Independence.

Assessment: The draft of the Declaration of Independence, student assessment of the Fish Bowl discussion.

Grade-Level Appropriateness

Some may question the appropriateness of the level of rigor in abstract thought required by these discussions. In response, I will point out the three days of research and preparation through direct instruction on the topic matter. Students have also already studied several of the Revolutionaries, and so many of the events leading up to the revolution have already been taught, too. This class is also very high in its ability to connect to abstract concepts, as observed through other areas of study, primarily in our reading lessons. Students regularly are able to identify, through looking at the text, several key, but subtle, words that convey emotional nuances surrounding the events of a fictional story. They are also able to pull facts from encyclopedias and draft basic reports on the subjects they researched.

Because this class is high in its academic ability, then, I am able to pursue this type of instruction. I fully plan on providing significant teacher support throughout this process, with clear instructions at each step of the way. With other classes, I would include more lessons on research, on polite discourse in the classroom, and on connecting cause-and-effect type relationships. These things, though, have already been covered for this group, and so the level of rigor found in these activities is wholly appropriate for my current group of students.

Summary

This activity appropriately addresses, in a Grade 3-level manner, the skills required for students to hold effective, productive discussions on a topic at hand. It also provides students with an in-depth analysis of a primary source document. This activity clearly addresses the standard’s requirements and provides a deeper, critical-thinking learning activity through which these requirements are met.

Sources

English language arts standards » speaking & listening » grade 3. (2016). Retrieved March 26, 2016, from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/SL/3/

TeachLikeThis (2013, November 14). How to do a fishbowl – TeachLikeThis Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xkWl9b0FZSE

Three Considerations to Support Successful Behavior Management

Three Considerations to Support Successful Behavior Management

 

Behavior management is something that changes from class to class, from teacher to teacher, and sometimes, from year to year. What works with one group may not work for the next. But what remains the same in every class is the paramount need that students have to feel safe and respected in the classroom. Without this, it is nearly impossible for a classroom to function effectively. And so, it is important for a new teacher to have an outline of how and when they will give positive and negative feedback. But how is this developed, and how can it be done? The considerations that follow can help any teacher think through their behavior management and develop a system that works well for their class.

1. Consequences for Misbehavior.

 

No matter how good a teacher’s management system, there will always be students who refuse to follow the rules of the classroom. It is necessary, then, for every teacher to have a consistent plan for reacting to misbehavior in the classroom. At my school, the primary grades use a card-turning system. As a third grade teacher I also have the opportunity to assign detentions should I deem it necessary, though I rarely do.


My consequences look something like this:

1st Infraction: Verbal warning and redirection.

2nd Infraction: Student writes their name on the whiteboard (visual warning).

3rd Infraction: Student turns their green card to yellow. (visual warning).

4th Infraction: Student turns their card to red. Parent is notified of misbehavior.

5th Infraction: Student writes lines related to the infringement (if irresponsible, student writes a paragraph on what it means to be responsible and how they can improve in responsibility).

6th Infraction: Student is sent to another classroom for self-reflection. Detention is considered.

If a behavior problem is ongoing, I will schedule a conference with the child’s parents and develop a plan with them that will offer the child an opportunity to grow in the area of deficiency.

2. To Reward or Not To Reward?

The first question that teachers must consider is whether or not they will reward their students for positive behavior. Some teachers believe that reward systems, such as a prize box or a class money system, teach children that they should behave simply because there’s a reward involved. Other teachers argue that students need the reinforcement of positive behavior that a reward system provides. I, personally, find that students respond well to praise and rewards, and that some of my students have grown immensely because of the systems in place in my classroom to provide that praise.

In my classroom, we use a monetary reward system we call “Hoot Bucks”, to connect the money to the owl decorative theme used throughout the classroom. Students can earn Hoot Bucks by doing well both academically and behaviorally. An A or A- on a test, for example, earns $30; behaving well in class for one lesson earns $20. A student can earn quite a few Hoot Bucks in both methods, which means that those who behave well but perform poorly academically (or vice versa) can still earn class money. Hoot Bucks can be spent on in-class, no-prep incentives such as “sitting at the teacher’s desk” or “taking shoes off for a day”.

I find that these incentives often serve as the means by which students choose ways to make their classroom experience more comfortable. Several students frequently choose to take their shoes off for a day, which has helped a few of them focus better in recent months. I also have students that love sitting in the bean bag chairs, and I find them more focused when they’re in the bean bag chairs than when they’re in their desks. Giving them this choice helps the students learn self-regulation, because they can see that they learn better with the change to their environment.

Hoot bucks can also be taken away when students misbehave. If a student rushes through a project and misses several instructions, I might give them a $50 Speeding Ticket. If they’re chronically forgetting important textbooks or items for lessons, such as their Mandolin for their music lessons, I will charge them an increasing fee. The Mandolin issue, for example, is widespread in my class. The price for forgetting the Mandolin for the weekly music lesson, which always happens on the same day, started at $10, then went up to $20, and now it’s up to $40. By increasing the price, the punishment becomes more severe while still limiting the negative communication I might have with parents.

Here is a flowchart showing how students can earn income in my classroom. We are currently studying the American Revolution, which started largely because of tax increases in England, and so I have included the rent and taxes which I am using as a practical lesson for my students on taxation without representation.

Click here to see the flow chart!
3. Individual or Group Rewards?

 

Another important question to consider is whether a class should be rewarded as a whole or as individuals. Some teachers argue that classes are best served with whole-group rewards. This fosters competition amongst the groups and promotes positive peer pressure. Students are more likely to want to follow instructions if the whole class wishes for them to follow that instruction. Other teachers rightly recognize that this can also lead to bullying of the student who struggles with self control or neglect of the students who behave well despite the misbehavior of their group. I believe that a balance of both provides the best of both worlds while eliminating the problems surrounding the use of just one or the other.

I use a Group Point system that helps the class focus on growing as a whole group. There are three table groups of four students each in my classroom. Each table group competes against each other for group points, which can be earned by fast transitions to the next activity or by focusing well when others are distracted. The group at the end of the week with the most group points at the end of the week gets stickers. The teams, though, also work together for a whole-class reward. When the class earns a collective 60 group points for three weeks in a row, they have a popcorn movie party at the end of the day the following Friday.

There are many reasons why this method is effective. It ensures that the efforts of individual groups are recognized along with the efforts of the whole class. It also ensures that I have a means by which I can hold the whole class responsible for their behavior without having every student individually turn their card (this will be discussed more in the following section). When the whole class, and I mean truly the whole class, is involved in distracted discussion, for example, I have the whole class put their heads down for a minute. At the end of the minute, I take away three group points each. I only use this when over 75% of the class is involved in the misbehavior, and usually only for issues of talking during a silent work time or while walking through a hallway connected to other classes.

But still, it is imperative to recognize individual behavior. If I just used this system, then the 25% of the students who are following instructions would not be recognized for their behavior. By incorporating the Hoot Buck system, I support the behavior of individuals who are controlling themselves and modeling positive behavior to their classmates.

Some teachers might find the use of both really confusing. How do I decide when to use Hoot Bucks, when to have a child turn a card, and when to use Group Points? I have created another flow chart, shown below, to help explain that process.
Click here to see the flow chart!

Summary:

All students, but especially those in the primary grades of elementary, thrive on structure. A great classroom management system should provide that structure. The structure will give students security and help them learn appropriate behavior for work and play. When creating a classroom management system, it is imperative that teachers consider the strengths and weaknesses of several different management systems so that they can find the one that will work best with their class. The key questions a teacher must ask are:

 

A). What will I do when a student misbehaves?

B). How will I respond to positive behavior?

C). Will I use individual rewards or group rewards?
When a teacher answers these questions, she or he will have a much deeper understanding of the system by which they will monitor their classroom behavior.

Flipped Learning and 3rd Grade Saxon Math: Exploring the Options

It’s Thanksgiving Break here in the United States, and apparently it’s fairly common for new teachers like myself to spend much of their break thinking about their classroom, and how things could be improved. Over the last several months, I’ve been doing a lot of thinking about how I can improve my math lessons, which currently are my weakest lessons due in part to student engagement and in part to managing the time slot so that we can effectively get through all of the material. I have been exploring the concept of the flipped classroom, and whether or not my 3rd graders could handle an in-class flip of their math curriculum.

The Flipped Classroom

Before I discuss my thoughts on how I might implement this in my own classroom, I think it’s prudent to define the flipped classroom, and examine a model or two for flipped learning.

The flipped classroom is a concept that was pioneered by Jon Bergmann and Aaron Sams, two teachers who noticed that the traditional learning model turned Bloom’s Taxonomy on its head. Teachers used class time to reach the lower levels of the taxonomy pictured below, in which students would work on learning the material with the teacher in the room. But the higher levels of the taxonomy, the creative, application assignments in which students would master the topics, were sent home as homework. Bergmann and Sams saw that class time could be used more effectively if teachers worked on the higher-level, harder tasks of creating and modeling with the students in-class, and sent the activities requiring lower-level thought (remembering, understanding) back home as homework.

fx_bloom_new

A flipped classroom can accomplish this in a couple of ways. In a fully flipped classroom, a teacher will send videos home with the students that cover the lecture material. Usually there will be some sort of lower-level work associated with watching the video – an online quiz, for example, or a worksheet to complete. When the students come to class the next day, they will review the material from the lesson and complete activities in class to master it.

Research seems to support the effectiveness of this model. A case study completed by the Foundation for Flipped Learning at Clintondale High School in Clinton Township, Michigan shows vast improvement in the pass rate of at-risk students in a flipped environment. At the start of the study, the school’s pass rate was not good.

 

“In 2009–2010, the pass rate for students at Clintondale High School (CHS) in Clinton Township, Michigan, was low across all subject areas. Among freshmen, only 48 percent of students passed English language arts, 56 percent passed math, 59 percent passed science, and 72 percent passed social studies.” – Pearson Education Case Study.

 

But then they started flipping the classrooms. They tried it in one freshman social studies class in 2010-2011, and then implemented it in every class and every subject in 2011-2012. The resulting change was impressive.

 

“Test scores, graduation rates, and college attendance have increased at CHS, student engagement has improved dramatically, and discipline problems have declined in both number and severity. In the freshman class in the first flipped learning semester, the pass rate increased to 67 percent in English language arts, 69 percent in math, 78 percent in science, and 81 percent in social studies, representing an increase of 9 to 19 percentage points across the subjects. Discipline referrals declined by 66 percent.” Pearson Education Case Study

 

There are many reasons why, proponents say, a flipped classroom is that effective. First, it frees the teacher up to work individually with the students on the material. Instead of practicing it wrongly at home, the teacher has the chance to correct misunderstandings while the student is still learning the material. Second, it provides more opportunities for student engagement, and gives the students a chance to practice the material with other students. This allows the students to teach the material and correct the misconceptions others have, which in turn allows both students to refresh the basics of the subject over and over again. (This document summarizes a few of these points in greater depth).

There are, however, several struggles that could arise from using the flipped learning method. Many students, according to this source, have stated that they miss the instructional lecture time in the classroom, as it provided an opportunity for the students to ask questions of their instructor. There are also those who have expressed concerns about using technology that the students may not have access to at home – if they’re required to watch a video online, for example, that might be difficult in low-income areas in which there are few families who have access to the internet at home. It also takes a lot of preparation on the part of the teacher to record videos for each lecture that fully explains the topic at hand in the same sort of depth the teacher would use in the classroom.

At my level, there is the even deeper concern of sending 8 and 9 year olds out onto the unfiltered internet to watch videos at home, and in some cases they may not have the parent watching over their shoulder as they complete the work. Questions of attention span issues, technological capabilities of the students, and appropriateness of ads and videos that websites like YouTube might link to my teacher-made videos would raise some serious concerns with the parents of my students.

So I’m considering another option, one that would eliminate the need for an internet connection and parent influence at home to keep the children on track. Some schools have changed the idea slightly, and instead do the flip through centers in the classroom. This article from Edutopia goes more in-depth into how this would work. Basically, though, a teacher would have two or three groups of different performance levels. One group would watch the videos in class, another group would go over the concepts they just watched with the teacher, and a third group would work on the individual practice for the lesson. Of course, there are several ways in which this could be constructed, and this is just one model that could potentially work for the centers involved.

The Flipped Classroom and Saxon Math

In my class, we use the Saxon Math method, which requires about an hour and a half a day to get through the curriculum. That time allotment sends the students home with about 15 problems of mixed-review practice, all of which require the students to show their work in exacting detail. 3rd graders are seeing this type of math work for the first time – in previous grade levels, they took home worksheets in which the problems were already written out for them; in this grade level, they have to write out the problem and show the work correctly in order for it to be marked correct. I appreciate the accuracy that is taught through this method, but I feel for my students who have intense struggles with attention to detail, and thus suffer greatly in their math grades.

My hope is that, if I can implement an in-class, center-driven flipped math class, I would have more time to provide direct instruction to all of my students on the written practice material. I am considering using fundraising money that will soon arrive to purchase small Mp4 video players for each of my students and uploading video lectures to these players. They would watch the video in class in one of the centers, move to a time with me going over example problems with manipulatives, and then turn to another center to work on the written practice.

I will be considering this as I move forward, and I will be doing more research, but I’m looking at implementing a test-drive lesson using this model before our class leaves for the holidays in December. Flipped learning could be an excellent model if planned correctly, but it could also just as easily fall apart. Mismanagement of the time in class could lead to unstructured talk amongst the students that gets everyone off task; poor videos could lead to misunderstandings of the topics being studied; a lack of support at home could lead to the students not preparing at all for class the next day; if the students do not feel that they can come to the teacher with questions, they will perpetuate misunderstandings if the video wasn’t clear enough with its instructions. Although on the surface the flipped classroom seems straightforward enough, I believe that I need to research this topic more and study my curriculum thoroughly before I attempt it with my 3rd graders.

Has anyone had experience with the flipped classroom? I’d love to hear your thoughts!

 

Bibliography

7 Things You Should Know About Flipped Classrooms. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/eli7081.pdf

About Jon. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://jonbergmann.com/about-m/

Flipped Learning Model Dramatically Improves Course Pass Rate for At-Risk Students. (2013). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://assets.pearsonschool.com/asset_mgr/current/201317/Clintondale_casestudy.pdf

Flipping the Classroom. (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom/

Gonzales, J. (2014, March 24). Modifying the Flipped Classroom: The “In-Class” Version. Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/flipped-classroom-in-class-version-jennifer-gonzalez

What Is Flipped Learning? (n.d.). Retrieved November 28, 2015, from http://flippedlearning.org/cms/lib07/VA01923112/Centricity/Domain/46/FLIP_handout_FNL_Web.pdf